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Perivascular adipose tissue: role in the pathogenesis of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular pathology.

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Abstract


Perivascular adipose tissue is a part of blood vessel wall, regulating endovascular homeostasis, endothelial and smooth muscle cells functioning. Under physiological conditions, perivascular tissue provides beneficial anticontractile effect, though undergoes structural and functional changes in obesity, atherosclerosis and diabetes mellitus type2.Collected data suggest the possible key role of perivascular adipose tissue in the pathogenesis of these diseases. Perivascular tissue has been determined as an independent cardiovascular risk factor, regardless of visceral obesity. General mechanisms include a local low-grade inflammation, oxidative stress, tissue renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system activation, paracrine and metabolic alterations. Properties of perivascular adipose tissue depend on the certain type of adipocytes it contains. Brown adipocytes are well known for their metabolic preferences, however it has been shown recently that brown perivascular tissue can contribute to dyslipidemia under some conditions.  The aim of this review is to discuss the current literature understanding of perivascular adipose tissue specifics, changes in its activity, secretory and genetic profilein a course of the most common non-infectious diseases development, as well as molecular mechanisms of its functioning. We also discuss perspectives of target interventions using metabolic pathways and genes of perivascular tissue, for the effective prevention of obesity, diabetes mellitus type2 and cardiovascular diseases.

Tat'yana Ivanovna Romantsova

I. M. Sechenov's First Moscow State Medical University

Email: romantsovatatiana@rambler.ru

Russian Federation MD Ph.D., professor of endocrinology

Ariadna Vasil'evna Ovsyannikovna

I. M. Sechenov's First Moscow State Medical University

Author for correspondence.
Email: ariadna.ovsiannikova@gmail.com

Russian Federation student

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Copyright (c) 2015 Романцова Т.И., Овсянникова А.В.

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