Уважаемые пользователи!

Данный сайт содержит информацию для людей с медицинским образованием и специалистов здравоохранения.
Входя на сайт, Вы подтверждаете свое согласие с Условиями использования и Политикой конфиденциальности.



Dear visitor!
This site contains medical information for healthcare professionals.
You can go further, if you agree with Terms and Conditions and Privacy Policy on this site.

Management of patients with differentiated neuroendocrine tumors of jejunum and ileum (according to international guidelines)

Cover Page

Abstract


Клинические рекомендации по ведению больных с нейроэндокринными опухолями дистальной части тонкой (тощей и подвздошной) кишки выработаны группой международных экспертов и освещают обновление эпидемиологических данных, пересмотр различных параметров классификации опухолей (ВОЗ, гистологические критерии, TNM), а также мультидисциплинарные проблемы, связанные с различными вопросами диагностики, стадирования и выбора оптимальных методов лечения больных с нейроэндокринными опухолями указанной локализации. Полный текст рекомендаций: B. Eriksson, G. Kloppel, E. Krennin, H. Ahlman, U. Plоckinger, B. Wiedenmann, R. Arnold, C. Auernhammer, M. Kоrner, G. Rindi, S. Wildi et al. Neuroendocrinology. 2008;87:8–19.

D G Beltsevich

Email: beltsevich@rambler.ru

G A Melnichenko

  1. B. Eriksson, G. Kloppel, E. Krennin, H. Ahlman, U. Plоckinger, B. Wiedenmann, R. Arnold, C. Auernhammer, M. Kоrner, G. Rindi, S. Wildi et al. Neuroendocrinology – 2008, 87, р. 8–19.
  2. Modlin I.M, Lye K. D., Kidd M. A five-decade analysis of 13,715 carcinoid tumors. Cancer 2003; 97: 934–959.
  3. Kulke M.H., Mayer R.J. Carcinoid tumors. N. Engl. J. Med. 1999; 340: 858–868.
  4. Burke A.P., Thomas R.M., Elsayed A.M., Sobin L.H. Carcinoids of the jejunum and ileum: an immunohistochemical and clinicopathologic study of 167 cases. Cancer 1997; 79: 1086–1093.
  5. Peck J.J., Shields A.B., Boyden A.M. et al. Carcinoid tumors of the ileum. Am. J. Surg. 1983; 146: 124–132.
  6. Modlin I.M., Sandor A. An analysis of 8,305 cases of carcinoid tumors. Cancer 1997; 79: 813–829.
  7. Loftus J.P., van Heerden J.A. Surgical management of gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors. Adv. Surg.1995; 28: 317–336.
  8. Godwin J.D. 2nd: Carcinoid tumors. An analysis of 2,837 cases. Cancer 1975; 36: 560– 569.
  9. Solcia E.K.G., Sobin L.H. in collaboration with 9 pathologists from 4 countries: Histological Typing of Endocrine Tumors,ed 2. WHO International Histological Classification of Tumors. Berlin: Springer, 2000.
  10. Berge T., Linell F. Carcinoid tumours. Frequency in a defined population during a 12year period. Acta Pathol. Microbiol. Scand. [A] 1976; 84: 322–330.
  11. Strodel W.E., Talpos G., Eckhauser F., Thompson N. Surgical therapy for small-bowel carcinoid tumors. Arch. Surg. 1983; 118: 391–397.
  12. Marshall J.B., Bodnarchuk G. Carcinoid tumors of the gut. Our experience over three decades and review of the literature. J. Clin. Gastroenterol. 1993; 16: 123–129.
  13. McDermott E.W., Guduric B., Brennan M.F. Prognostic variables in patients with gastrointestinal carcinoid tumours. Br. J. Surg. 1994; 81: 1007–1009.
  14. Arnold R., Rinke A., Klose K.J. et al. Octreotide versus octreotide plus interferonin endocrine gastroenteropancreatic tumors: a randomized trial. Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 2005; 3: 761–771.
  15. Oberg K. Chemotherapy and biotherapy in neuroendocrine tumors. Curr. Opin. Oncol. 1993; 5: 110–120.
  16. Moertel C.G. Karnofsky memorial lecture. An odyssey in the land of small tumors. J. Clin. Oncol. 1987; 5: 1502–1522.
  17. Creutzfeldt W. Carcinoid tumors: development of our knowledge. World J. Surg. 1996; 20: 126–131.
  18. Oberg K. The use of chemotherapy in the management of neuroendocrine tumors. Endocrinol. Metab. Clin. N. Am. 1993; 22: 941–952.
  19. Ahlman H., Westberg G., Wangberg B. et al. Treatment of liver metastases of carcinoid tumors. World. J. Surg. 1996; 20: 196–202.
  20. Zuetenhorst J.M., Bonfrer J.M., Korse C.M. et al. Carcinoid heart disease: the role of urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid excretion and plasma levels of atrial natriuretic peptide, transforming growth factorand fibroblast growth factor. Cancer 2003; 97: 1609–1615.
  21. Norheim I., Oberg K., Theodorsson-Norheim E. et al. Malignant carcinoid tumors. An analysis of 103 patients with regard to tumor localization, hormone production, and survival. Ann. Surg. 1987; 206: 115–125.
  22. Makridis C., Rastad J., Oberg K., Akerstrom G. Progression of metastases and symptom improvement from laparotomy in midgut carcinoid tumors. World J. Surg. 1996; 20: 900– 907.
  23. Westberg G., Wangberg B., Ahlman H. et al. Prediction of prognosis by echocardiography in patients with midgut carcinoid syndrome. Br. J. Surg. 2001; 88: 865–872.
  24. Krenning E.P., Kwekkeboom D.J., Bakker W.H. et al. Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy with [ 111 In-DTPAD Phe 1 ]and [ 123 I-Tyr 3 ]octreotide: the Rotterdam experience with more than 1,000 patients. Eur. J. Nucl. Med. 1993; 20: 716–731.
  25. Hofmann M., Maecke H., Borner R. et al. Biokinetics and imaging with the somatostatin receptor PET radioligand 68 Ga-DOTATOC: preliminary data. Eur. J. Nucl. Med. 2001; 28: 1751–1757.
  26. Ricke J., Klose K.J., Mignon M. et al. Standardisation of imaging in neuroendocrine tumours: results of a European delphi process. Eur. J. Radiol. 2001; 37: 8–17.
  27. Kaltsas G., Rockall A., Papadogias D. et al. Recent advances in radiological and radionuclide imaging and therapy of neuroendocrine tumours. Eur. J. Endocrinol. 2004; 151: 15–27.
  28. Bader T.R., Semelka R.C., Chiu V.C. et al. MRI of carcinoid tumors: spectrum of appearances in the gastrointestinal tract and liver. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2001; 14: 261–269.
  29. Orlefors H., Sundin A., Garske U. et al. Wholebody 11 C-5-hydroxytryptophan positron emission tomography as a universal imaging technique for neuroendocrine tumors: comparison with somatostatin receptor scintigraphy and computed tomography. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 2005; 90: 3392–3400.
  30. Koopmans K.P., de Vries E.G., Kema I.P. et al. Staging of carcinoid tumours with 18 F-DOPA PET: a prospective, diagnostic accuracy study. Lancet Oncol. 2006; 7: 728–734.
  31. Van Tuyl S.A., van Noorden J.T., Timmer R. et al. Detection of small-bowel neuroendocrine tumors by video capsule endoscopy. Gastrointest. Endosc. 2006; 64: 66–72.
  32. Swain P. Wireless capsule endoscopy. Gut 2003; 52 (suppl.4):48–50.
  33. Oberg K., Stridsberg M. Chromogranins as diagnostic and prognostic markers in neuroendocrine tumours. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 2000; 482: 329–337.
  34. Ardill J.E., Erikkson B. The importance of the measurement of circulating markers in patients with neuroendocrine tumours of the pancreas and gut. Endocr. Relat. Cancer 2003; 10: 459–462.
  35. Feldman J.M., O’Dorisio T.M. Role of neuropeptides and serotonin in the diagnosis of carcinoid tumors. Am. J. Med. 1986; 81: 41–48.
  36. Eriksson B., Oberg K. Peptide hormones as tumor markers in neuroendocrine gastrointestinal tumors. Acta Oncol. 1991; 30: 477– 483.
  37. Hamilton S.R. AL: Tumors of the digestive system. Pathology and Genetics. WHO Classification of Tumours. Lyon: ARC Press, 2000.
  38. Rindi G., Kloppel G., Alhman H. et al. TNM staging of foregut (neuro)endocrine tumors: a consensus proposal including a grading system. Virchows Arch. 2006; 449: 395–401.
  39. Hemminki K., Li X. Incidence trends and risk factors of carcinoid tumors: a nationwide epidemiologic study from Sweden. Cancer 2001; 92: 2204–2210.
  40. Hemminki K., Li X. Familial carcinoid tumors and subsequent cancers: a nationwide epidemiologic study from Sweden. Int. J. Cancer 2001; 94: 444–448.
  41. Akerstrom G., Makridis C., Johansson H. Abdominal surgery in patients with midgut carcinoid tumors. Acta Oncol.1991; 30: 547–553.
  42. Rothmund M., Kisker O. Surgical treatment of carcinoid tumors of the small bowel, appendix, colon and rectum. Digestion 1994; 55 (suppl. 3): 86–91.
  43. Ahlman H., Wangberg B., Jansson S. et al. Interventional treatment of gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumours. Digestion 2000; 62(suppl 1):59–68.
  44. Makridis C., Oberg K., Juhlin C. et al. Surgical treatment of mid-gut carcinoid tumors. World J. Surg. 1990; 14: 377–384.
  45. Norton J.A. Surgical management of carcinoid tumors: role of debulking and surgery for patients with advanced disease. Digestion 1994; 55(suppl 3):98–103.
  46. Goede A.C., Winslet M.C. Surgery for carcinoid tumours of the lower gastrointestinal tract. Colorectal. Dis. 2003; 5: 123–128.
  47. Frilling A., Rogiers X., Malago M. et al. Treatment of liver metastases in patients with neuroendocrine tumors. Langenbecks Arch. Surg. 1998; 383: 62–70.
  48. Lehnert T., Knaebel H.P. Diagnosis and therapy of liver metastases of neuroendocrine tumors in German). Hirurg 1997; 68: 122–131.
  49. Chen H., Hardacre J.M., Uzar A. et al. Isolated liver metastases from neuroendocrine tumors: does resection prolong survival? J. Am. Coll. Surg. 1998; 187: 88– 93.
  50. Que F.G., Nagorney D.M., Batts K.P. et al. Hepatic resection for metastatic neuroendocrine carcinomas. Am. J. Surg. 1995; 169: 36–43.
  51. Sarmiento J.M., Heywood G., Rubin J. et al. Surgical treatment of neuroendocrine metastases to the liver: a plea for resection to increase survival. J. Am. Coll. Surg. 2003; 197: 29–37.
  52. Chamberlain R.S., Canes D., Brown K.T. et al. Hepatic neuroendocrine metastases: does intervention alter outcomes? J. Am. Coll. Surg. 2000; 190: 432–445.
  53. Norton J.A., Warren R.S., Kelly M.G. et al. Aggressive surgery for metastatic liver neuroendocrine tumors. Surgery 2003; 134: 1057–1065.
  54. Soreide O., Berstad T., Bakka A. et al. Surgical treatment as a principle in patients with advanced abdominal carcinoid tumors. Surgery 1992; 111: 48–54.
  55. Moertel C.G., Sauer W.G., Dockerty M.B., Baggenstoss A.H. Life history of the carcinoid tumor of the small intestine. Cancer 1961; 14: 901–912.
  56. Dousset B., Saint-Marc O., Pitre J. et al. Metastatic endocrine tumors: medical treatment, surgical resection, or liver transplantation. World J. Surg. 1996; 20: 908–915.
  57. Chung M.H., Pisegna.J, Spirt M. et al. Hepatic cytoreduction followed by a novel long-acting somatostatin analog: a paradigm for intractable neuroendocrine tumors metastatic to the liver. Surgery 2001; 130: 954–962.
  58. Wangberg B., Westberg G., Tylen U. et al. Survival of patients with disseminated midgut carcinoid tumors after aggressive tumor reduction.World J. Surg. 1996; 20: 892–899.
  59. McEntee G.P., Nagorney D.M., Kvols L.K. et al. Moertel CG, Grant CS: Cytoreductive hepatic surgery for neuroendocrine tumors. Surgery 1990; 108: 1091–1096.
  60. Eriksson B., Oberg K. Summing up 15 years of somatostatin analog therapy in neuroendocrine tumors: future outlook. Ann. Oncol. 1999; 10 (suppl. 2):S31–S38.
  61. Eriksson B., Renstrup J., Imam H., Oberg K. High-dose treatment with lanreotide of patients with advanced neuroendocrine gastrointestinal tumors: clinical and biological effects. Ann. Oncol. 1997; 8: 1041–1044.
  62. Wymenga A.N., Eriksson B., Salmela P.I. et al. Efficacy and safety of prolonged-release lanreotide in patients with gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors and hormone-related symptoms. J. Clin. Oncol. 1999; 17: 1111.
  63. Ducreux M., Ruszniewski P., Chayvialle J.A. et аl. The antitumoral effect of the long-acting somatostatin analog lanreotide in neuroendocrine tumors. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 2000; 95: 3276–3281.
  64. Di Bartolomeo M., Bajetta E., Buzzoni R. et al. Clinical efficacy of octreotide in the treatment of metastatic neuroendocrine tumors. A study by the Italian Trials in Medical Oncology Group. Cancer 1996; 77: 402–408.
  65. Arnold R., Trautmann M.E., Creutzfeldt W. et al. Somatostatin analogue octreotide and inhibition of tumour growth in metastatic endocrine gastroenteropancreatic tumours. Gut 1996; 38: 430–438.
  66. Aparicio T., Ducreux M., Baudin E. et al. Antitumour activity of somatostatin analogues in progressive metastatic neuroendocrine tumours. Eur. J. Cancer 2001; 37: 1014–1019.
  67. O’Toole D., Ducreux M., Bommelaer G. et al. Treatment of carcinoid syndrome: a prospective crossover evaluation of lanreotide versus octreotide in terms of efficacy, patient acceptability, and tolerance. Cancer 2000; 88: 770–776.
  68. Ruszniewski P., Ducreux M., Chayvialle J.A. et al. Treatment of the carcinoid syndrome with the longacting somatostatin analogue lanreotide: a prospective study in 39 patients. Gut 1996; 39: 279–283.
  69. Tomassetti P., Migliori M., Gullo L. Slow-release lanreotide treatment in endocrine gastrointestinal tumors. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 1998; 93: 1468–1471.
  70. Tomassetti P., Migliori M., Corinaldesi R., Gullo L. Treatment of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours with octreotide LAR. Aliment Pharmacol. Ther. 2000; 14: 557–560.
  71. Faiss S., Pape U.F., Bohmig M. et al. Prospective, randomized, multicenter trial on the antiproliferative effect of lanreotide, interferon alfa, and their combination for therapy of metastatic neuroendocrine gastroenteropancreatic tumors – The International Lanreotide and Interferon Alfa Study Group. J. Clin. Oncol. 2003; 21: 2689–2696.
  72. Rubin J., Ajani J., Schirmer W. et al. Octreotide acetate longacting formulation versus open-label subcutaneous octreotide acetate in malignant carcinoid syndrome. J. Clin. Oncol. 1999; 17: 600–606.
  73. Ricci S., Antonuzzo A., Galli L. et al. Octreotide аcetate longacting release in patients with metastatic neuroendocrine tumors pretreated with lanreotide. Ann. Oncol. 2000; 11: 1127–1130.
  74. Leong W.L., Pasieka J.L. Regression of metastatic carcinoid tumors with octreotide therapy: two case reports and a review of the literature. J. Surg. Oncol. 2002; 79: 180–187.
  75. Saltz L., Trochanowski B., Buckley M. et al. Octreotide as an antineoplastic agent in the treatment of functional and nonfunctional neuroendocrine tumors. Cancer 1993; 72: 244–248.
  76. Plockinger U., Dienemann D., Quabbe H.J. Gastrointestinal side-effects of octreotide during long-term treatment of acromegaly. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 1990; 71: 1658–1662.
  77. Oberg K., Norheim I., Lind E. et al. Treatment of malignant carcinoid tumors with human leukocyte interferon: long-term results. Cancer Treat. Rep. 1986; 70: 1297–1304.
  78. Valimaki M., Jarvinen H., Salmela P. et al. Is the treatment of metastatic carcinoid tumor with interferon not as successful as suggested? Cancer 1991; 67: 547–549.
  79. Doberauer C., Mengelkoch B., Kloke O. et al. Treatment of metastatic carcinoid tumors and the carcinoid syndrome with recombinant interferon. Acta Oncol. 1991; 30: 603–605.
  80. Creutzfeldt W., Bartsch H.H., Jacubaschke U., Stockmann F. Treatment of gastrointestinal endocrine tu mours with interferonand octreotide. Acta Oncol. 1991; 30: 529–535.
  81. Moertel C.G., Rubin J., Kvols L.K. Therapy of metastatic carcinoid tumor and the malignant carcinoid syndrome with recombinant leukocyte A interferon. J. Clin. Oncol. 1989; 7: 865–868.
  82. Janson E.T., Ronnblom L., Ahlstrom H. et al. Treatment with interferon versus α-interferon in combination with streptozocin and doxorubicin in patients with malignant carcinoid tumors: a randomized trial. Ann. Oncol. 1992; 3: 635–638.
  83. Oberg K., Alm G., Magnusson A. et al. Treatment of malignant carcinoid tumors with recombinant interferon alfa-2b: development of neutralizing interferon antibodies and possible loss of antitumor activity. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 1989; 81: 531–535.
  84. Smith D.B., Scarffe J.H., Wagstaff J., Johnston R.J. Phase II trial of rDNA alfa-2b interferon in patients with malignant carcinoid tumor. Cancer Treat. Rep. 1987; 71: 1265–1266.
  85. Tiensuu Janson E.M., Ahlstrom H., Andersson T., Oberg K.E. Octreotide and interferon alfa: a new combination for the treatment of malignant carcinoid tumours. Eur. J. Cancer 1992; 28A:1647–1650.
  86. Jacobsen M.B., Hanssen L.E., Kolmannskog F. et al. Interferon-α 2b, with or without prior hepatic artery embolization: clinical response and survival in mid-gut carcinoid patients. The Norwegian Carcinoid Study. Scand. J. Gastroenterol. 1995; 30: 789–796.
  87. Dirix L.Y., Vermeulen P.B., Fierens H. et al. De Schepper B, Corthouts B., Van Oosterom A.T.: Long-term results of continuous treatment with recombinant interferon-α in patients with metastatic carcinoid tumors – an antiangiogenic effect? Anticancer. Drugs 1996; 7: 175–181.
  88. Oberg K., Eriksson B. The role of interferons in the management of carcinoid tumors. Acta Oncol. 1991; 30: 519–522.
  89. Nold R., Frank M., Kajdan U. et al. Combined treatment of metastatic endocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal tract with octreotide and interferon-α (in German). Z. Gastroenterol. 1994; 32: 193– 197.
  90. Kolby L., Persson G., Franzen S., Ahren B. Randomized clinical trial of the effect of interferon-α on survival in patients with disseminated midgut carcinoid tumours. Br. J. Surg. 2003; 90: 687–693.
  91. Frank M., Klose K.J., Wied M. et al. Combination therapy with octreotide and α-interferon: effect on tumor growth in metastatic endocrine gastroenteropancreatic tumors. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 1999; 94: 1381–1387.
  92. Oberg K. Chemotherapy and biotherapy in the treatment of neuroendocrine tumours. Ann. Oncol. 2001; 12 (suppl. 2): S111–S114.
  93. Rougier P., Mitry E. Chemotherapy in the treatment of neuroendocrine malignant tumors. Digestion 2000; 62 (suppl.1):73–78.
  94. Pelley R.J., Bukowski R.M. Recent advances in systemic therapy for gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors. Curr. Opin. Oncol. 1999; 11: 32–37.
  95. De Jong M., Breeman W.A., Bernard H.F. et al. Therapy of neuroendocrine tumors with radiolabeled somatostatin analogues. Q. J. Nucl. Med. 1999; 43: 356–366.
  96. De Jong M., Breeman W.A., Bakker W.H. et al. Comparison of 111 In-labeled somatostatin analogues for tumor scintigraphy and radionuclide therapy. Cancer Res. 1998; 58: 437–441.
  97. Stolz B., Smith-Jones P., Albert R. et al. Somatostatin analogues for somatostatin-receptor-mediated radiotherapy of cancer. Digestion 1996; 57 (suppl. 1):17–21.
  98. Valkema R., De Jong M., Bakker W.H. et al. Phase I study of peptide receptor radionuclide therapy with [In-DTPA] octreotide: the Rotterdam experience. Semin. Nucl. Med. 2002; 32: 110–122.
  99. Waldherr C., Pless M., Maecke H.R. et al. The clinical value of [90 Y-DOTA]D -Phe 1 -Tyr 3 –octreotide (90 Y-DOTATOC) in the treatment of neuroendocrine tumours: a clinical phase II study. Ann. Oncol. 2001; 12: 941–945.
  100. Waldherr C., Pless M., Maecke H.R. et al. Tumor response and clinical benefit in neuroendocrine tumors after 7.4 GBqY-DOTATOC. J. Nucl. Med. 2002; 43: 610–616.
  101. Waldherr C., Schumacher T., Maecke H.R. et al. Does tumor response depend on the number of treatment sessions at constant injected dose using 90 Y-DOTATOC in neuroendocrine tumors? Eur. J. Nucl. Med. 2002; 29 (suppl.):S100.
  102. Virgolini I., Britton K., Buscombe J. et al. Inand YDOTAlanreotide: results and implications of the MAURITIUS trial. Semin. Nucl. Med. 2002; 32: 148–155.
  103. Virgolini I., Traub T., Novotny C. et al. Experience with indium-111 and yttrium-90labeled somatostatin analogs. Curr. Pharm. Des. 2002; 8: 1781–1807.
  104. De Jong M., Bree man W.A., Bernard B.F. et al. Tumor response after [90 Y-DOTA 0, Tyr 3]oc treotide radionuclide therapy in a transplantable rat tumor model is dependent on tumor size. J. Nucl. Med. 2001; 42: 1841–1846.
  105. Chinol M., Bodei L., Cremonesi M. Receptor-mediated radiotherapy with Y-DOTAD -Phe-Tyr-octreotide: the experience of the European Institute of Oncology Group. Semin. Nucl. Med. 2002; 32: 141–147.
  106. Paganelli G., Zoboli S., Cremonesi M. et al. Receptor-mediated radiotherapy with 90YDOTAD -Phe 1 -Tyr 3 -octreotide. Eur. J. Nucl. Med. 2001; 28: 426–434.
  107. Valkema R., Kvols L., Jamar F. et al. Phase I study of therapy with 90 Y-SMT487 (OctreoTher) in patients with somatostatin receptorpositive tumors. J. Nucl. Med. 2002; 5 (suppl.):33P.
  108. Bodei L., Cremonesi M., Zoboli S. et al. Receptormediated radionuclide therapy with 90 Y-DOTATOC in association with amino acid infusion: a phase I study. Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging 2003; 30: 207–216.
  109. Rolleman E.J., Valkema R., de Jong M. et al. Safe and effective inhibition of renal uptake of radiolabelled octreotide by a combination of lysine and arginine. Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging. 2003; 30: 9–15.
  110. Bushnell D., O’Dorisio T., Menda Y. et al. Evaluating the clinical effectiveness of 90 YSMT487 in patients with neuroendocrine tumors. J. Nucl. Med. 2003; 44: 1556–1560.
  111. De Jong M., Breeman W.A., Bernard B.F. et al. [177 LuDOTA 0 ,Tyr 3 ]octreotate for somatostatin receptor-targeted radionuclide therapy. Int. J. Cancer 2001; 92: 628–633.
  112. Kwekkeboom D.J., Bakker W.H., Kooij P.P. et al. [177 LuDOTA 0, Tyr 3] octreotate: comparison with [ 111 In-DTPA 0 ] octreotide in patients. Eur. J. Nucl. Med. 2001; 28: 1319–1325.
  113. De Jong M., Bernhard H.F, Breeman W.A.P. et al. Combination of 90 Yand 177 Lu-labeled somatostatin analogs in superior for radionuclide therapy compared to 90 Yor 177 Lulabeled analogs only. J. Nucl. Med. 2002: 123–124.
  114. Kwekkeboom D.J., Bakker W.H., Kam B.L. et al. Treatment of patients with gastroenteropancreatic tumours with the novel radiolabelled somatostatin analogue 177 LuDOTA 0, Tyr 3] octreotate. Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging. 2003; 30: 417–422.
  115. Kwekkeboom D.J., Teunissen J.J., Bakker W.H. et al. Radiolabeled somatostatin analog [177 Lu-DOTA 0, Tyr 3] octreotate in patients with endocrine gastroenteropancreatic tumors. J. Clin. Oncol. 2005; 23: 2754–2762.
  116. Jacobsen M.B., Nitter-Hauge S., Bryde P.E., Hanssen L.E. Cardiac manifestations in mid-gut carcinoid disease. Eur. Heart. J. 1995; 16: 263–268.
  117. Gustafsson B.I., Tommeras K., Nordrum I. et al. Long-term serotonin administration induces heart valve disease in rats. Circulation 2005; 111: 1517–1522.
  118. Zuetenhorst J.M., Korse C.M., Bonfrer J.M. et al. Role of natriuretic peptides in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with carcinoid heart disease. Br. J. Cancer 2004; 90: 2073–2079.

Views

Abstract - 618

PDF (Russian) - 311

Cited-By


CrossRef     1 citations

  • Rykov OV, Bitarov TT, Shestakov AL. Gangliocytic paraganglioma of the duodenum. Khirurgiya. Zhurnal im. N.I. Pirogova. 2017;(5):91. doi: 10.17116/hirurgia2017591-94

Copyright (c) 2011 ., .

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.